Shashi Rajagopalan

(Shashi’s friends continue to pen their recollections. In this post, I am appending the text of the obituary written by Sanjeev Chopra, a joint secretary at the Ministry of Agriculture I got to know via Shashi. This was published on 15th August in the Garhwal Post, Dehradun. You might also like to see former IIM-A professor M S Sriram’s post on her. And here is a link to a letter that EPW published about her.)

A tribute to Shashi Rajagopalan (21.7.51-5.8.2011)

who has taught me much more than co-operatives and policy advocacy

Readers may recall that two years ago, I had dedicated   AgriMatters (a collection of essays published in this column) to her. She had told me, in a matter –of-fact way that she was down with breast cancer, but that she would try to lead a ‘normal life’, and that she did till the last three months, as an active member of the Board of the RBI and NABARD besides guiding several NGOs and CBOs, attending seminars and discussions, and even participating in field visits.

My interaction with Shashi started when I took over as the Vice Chair and co-ordinator of the CCRD (Centre for Cooperatives and Rural Development) at Mussorie in 1996. I was then trying to understand how co-operatives could be made more professional, and how they could be freed from the yokel of the Registrar’s office.  The experience as CEO Himul was still fresh, and the faith in the infinite possibilities that the co-op form of organization was firmly grounded in experience.  The Academy   had established the CCRD to   undertake case studies, document best practices and assess the impact of co-operatives on agrarian economy. The NDDB had given a grant of Rs 1 crore ( a substantial sum in 1995) for this purpose,  Dr Kurien as  Chairman was keen that young entrants should look at the co-operative form of enterprise as a viable option , not just in dairying sector, but for other sectors as well : labour, housing, credit, fertilizer, fisheries, marketing, agro processing  etc.

Shashi was then working for the CDF (Co-operative Development Foundation), Hyderabad and had played the ‘salient’ role in bringing about the first progressive legislation on co-ops in the country: the Andhra Pradesh Mutually Aided co-op societies Act – which was hailed as an exemplar.  She would organize annual consolations on the Self Reliant/Mutually Aided C-op Societies Act, and take us for extensive tours to the women’s thrift and credit co-ops, as also to the Mulkanoor Multipurpose Co-op society to sow us the real potential of what people can do by them.

The core message of Shashi was:  trust people, especially women with their money, extend professional support and training for basic accounting and management techniques provide exposure to the opportunities in their sect oral domains through value addition, marketing and support services – and let them learn from their own mistakes.   A co-operative was a co-operative only if it adhered to mutual help and self help: the moment it accepted government equity and patronage, and accepted its role as an ‘agency’ of the government, it lost its independence forever to the Registrar and his minions. Unfortunately in our country, the vast majority of the co-operatives had been organized by the state, as it suited the state to deliver services – credit, fertilizer, and marketing support through co-operatives.  The AP example was followed by Bihar, Karnataka. J&K, Madhya Pradesh, Odhisa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, and in varying degrees by many other states. The Centre at Mussorie was an active protagonist of this reform, and the J&K draft legislation was discussed at length at a workshop at the Academy.

When Uttarakhand was carved out of UP, Dr RS Tolia wanted a new legislation for co-operatives in the state, and Shashi’s services were again requisitioned to assist the state. The USHA   Housing society, where yours truly stays with many of his colleagues is registered under the progressive legislation drafted with Shashi’s help.  Shashi also led the CECI-CEBED study on self Reliant co-ops in India and yours truly was a part of that team.  Her insights and her vision were, to say the least exemplary.

Shashi’s imprint is visible in all the publications of the CCRD, especially, “ Creating the Space : Disengagement of government from co-operatives’, a seminar conducted by her in which the general consensus was  that co-operatives must draw up a plan for the redemption of government equity, and that governments on their part may not take ‘equity’ in co-ops. Easier said than done, for co-operatives have been used by all governments to meet their short term interests, that the long term vision was often lost. She was the most popular speaker at the SAARC Consultations on Co-op Policy, and her fan following grew by leaps and bounds.  In fact, no seminar in the co-op/SHG/micro finance/empowerment circuit was complete without her ‘words of wisdom’. She encouraged so many of us to take the debate forward…Amjad Afridi, Gopi Ghosh, Sudhanshu Dhulia, Rajiv ID Mehta, Gopal Saxena, and Kabita Bhattarai, among others.

A few years ago, she left the CDF, and became an independent consultant, and would send her friends an annual report on her activities for that year. She would list all her assignments , the sources for her funds, and would also give  her take on the ‘learnings’ from each of these assignments – ranging from  women’s empowerment to  access for people  with special abilities and  issues of reproductive health and  awareness about HIV. Her elevation to the RBI Board was an acknowledgement of the pioneering work done by her in her chosen domain, and though she did not have an advanced degree in public finance or economics, she had understood the finer nuances of fiscal and monetary policy, and her colleagues held her in the highest esteem.

Did I accept everything she said unquestioningly? No. We disagreed on the restructuring of the ‘sarkari co-operatives’. While she was skeptical of them, I felt that they performed an important task, and till FPOs or JLGs or self reliant co-ops came up, we had to work with them.  She felt strongly that it was virtually impossible to reform them from within- something I have now begun to accept as the managing Director of Nafed.

On the personal front, Shashi was a member of our family. She got on famously with Rashmi, Sanandan and Yauvanika. Yauvanika could spend more time with her than Sanandan, especially during her visits to Kolkata for the RBI Board   meetings. Invariably we would dine out (at her expense), try out new cuisines, talk philosophy, the state of the nation, in fact everything except cricket and Hindi movies. She shared Rashmi’s strong aversion to allopathic mode of treatment, and lived with her cancer, valiantly with naturopathy and homeopathy. She had lost a lot of her weight, but none of her spirits, or her sharp intellect and wit, and the ability to connect people across different spectrums to work on themes that were of mutual interest.

Rashmi and I met her last on 24th July at Hyderabad. She had organized her own ‘farewell’,(with a little help from her affectionate niece Sonia Iyengar) for her friends and family – and we were proud to be part of that intimate circle. After a proper Iyengar meal on a banana plantain, she got us together and thanked us for the ‘most precious gift’ anyone could have given her:  the gift of our time….

How one wishes one had more of it with her!

One response to “Shashi Rajagopalan”

  1. Dr.Swapna karani

    I can’t swallow that Shashi is no more.
    I was associated with Shashi way back in late 1970s & early 1980s.,had been to Warangal (Mulkanoor )with RDS & WDAS members & remember Mr.Kurien too while the Mulkanoor Co-operative Society was being carved.Shashi had picked me up as someone out of the box in the health field while working with HASSS,& we did lots field work together & shared a personal rapport,my mother still remembers her as a jubilant girl.

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I am an Indian journalist with interests in energy, environment, climate and India’s ongoing slide into right-wing authoritarianism. My book, Despite the State, an examination of pervasive state failure and democratic decay in India, was published by Westland Publications, India, in January 2021. My work has won the Bala Kailasam Memorial Award; the Ramnath Goenka Excellence in Journalism Award; and five Shriram Awards for Excellence in Financial Journalism. Write to me at


…une plongée dans les failles béantes de la démocratie indienne, un compte rendu implacable du dysfonctionnement des Etats fédérés, minés par la corruption, le clientélisme, le culte de la personnalité des élus et le capitalisme de connivence. (…a dive into the gaping holes in Indian democracy, a relentless account of the dysfunction of the federated states, undermined by corruption, clientelism, the cult of the personality of elected officials and crony capitalism).” Le Monde

…a critical enquiry into why representative government in India is flagging.Biblio

…strives for an understanding of the factors that enable governments and political parties to function in a way that is seemingly hostile to the interests of the very public they have been elected to serve, a gross anomaly in an electoral democracy.”

M. Rajshekhar’s deeply researched book… holds a mirror to Indian democracy, and finds several cracks.The Hindu

…excels at connecting the local to the national.Open

…refreshingly new writing on the play between India’s dysfunctional democracy and its development challenges…Seminar

A patient mapping and thorough analysis of the Indian system’s horrific flaws…” Business Standard (Image here)

33 മാസം, 6 സംസ്ഥാനങ്ങൾ, 120 റിപ്പോർട്ടുകൾ: ജനാധിപത്യം തേടി മഹത്തായ ഇന്ത്യൻ യാത്ര… (33 months, 6 states, 120 reports: Great Indian journey in search of democracy…)” Malayala Manorama

Hindustan ki maujooda siyasi wa maaashi soorat e hal.” QindeelOnline

What emerges is the image of a state that is extractive, dominant, casteist and clientelist.Tribune

…reporting at its best. The picture that emerges is of a democracy that has been hijacked by vested interests, interested only in power and

Book lists

Ten best non-fiction books of the year“, The Hindu.

Twenty-One Notable Books From 2021“, The Wire.

What has South Asia been reading: 2021 edition“, Himal Southasian


Journalism is a social enterprise…,”

Democratic decay at state level: Journalist M Rajshekhar on book ‘Despite the State’,” The News Minute.

Covid-19 en Inde : “des décès de masse” dont un “État obscurantiste est responsable,” Asialyst.


JP to BJP: The Unanswered Questions“.
Mahtab Alam’s review of “JP to BJP: Bihar After Lalu and Nitish”.

Urban History of Atmospheric Modernity in Colonial India“. Mohammad Sajjad’s review of “Dust and Smoke: Air Pollution and Colonial Urbanism, India, c1860-c1940”.

Westland closure: Titles that are selling fast and a few personal recommendations,” by Chetana Divya Vasudev, Moneycontrol. (Because this happened too. In February, a year after DtS was released, Amazon decided to shutter Westland, which published the book. The announcement saw folks rushing to buy copies of Westland books before stocks run out.)

Time to change tack on counterinsurgency” by TK Arun, The Federal.

All Things Policy: The Challenges of Governing States” by Suman Joshi and Sarthak Pradhan, Takshashila Institute (podcast).

The Future of Entertainment“, Kaveree Bamzai in Open.

On What India’s Watching“, Prathyush Parasuraman on Substack.

The puppeteers around us“, Karthik Venkatesh in Deccan Herald.

Will TN election manifestos continue ‘populist’ welfare schemes?“, Anna Isaac for The News Minute.

Why wages-for-housework won’t help women“, V Geetha in Indian Express.

The poor state of the Indian state“, Arun Maira in The Hindu.

Book discussions

26 December, 2021: Rangashankara, Bangalore, a discussion with Dhanya Rajendran.

16 November: Rachna Books, Gangtok, a discussion with Pema Wangchuk.

29 August: Books In The Time of Chaos, with Ujwal Kumar.

21 May: Hyderabad Lit Fest with Kaveree Bamzai and Aniruddha Bahal.

28 March: Paalam Books, Salem, Tamil Nadu.

19 March: The News Minute, “Citizens, the State, and the idea of India

6 March: Pen@Prithvi, with Suhit Kelkar

20 February: A discussion between scholars Usha Ramanathan, Tridip Suhrud, MS Sriram and me to formally launch Despite the State.

6 February: DogEars Bookshop, Margoa.

5 February: The Polis Project, Dispatches with Suchitra Vijayan.

30 January: Founding Fuel, “Systems Thinking, State Capacity and Grassroots Development“.

25 January: Miranda House Literary Society